Review on Available Theoretical Models for Room Temperature Ferromagnetism in Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors

Authors Rana Mukherji1 , Vishal Mathur2

1 The ICFAI University, Jaipur, India

2 Sur University College, Sur, Oman

Issue Volume 11, Year 2019, Number 3
Dates Received 19 March 2019; revised manuscript received 10 June 2019; published online 25 June 2019
Citation Rana Mukherji, Vishal Mathur, J. Nano- Electron. Phys. 11 No 3, 03039 (2019)
PACS Number(s) 85.75.d, 75.50.Pp, 75.50.Bb, 77.84.Bw
Keywords Room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM), Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) model, Zener model, Mean-field Zener model and bound magnetic polaron (BMP) model.

Dilute magnetic semiconductors have been attracting scientific community due to their wide array of applications like spintronics devices such as nano-magnetic memories, nano-sensors, etc. The researchers have gathered a large amount of experimental data over the past few decades with varied perceptions into the origin of ferromagnetism in dilute magnetic semiconductors. Some investigators found the room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) because of metallic groups; whereas others revealed the same because of the substitution of doped transition metals (TM) into the host milieu and called it as semi-magnetic semiconductors. Some of them also found paramagnetic behaviors at room temperature, however, achieved RTFM after annealing in vacuum/H2/air or any other medium. Theoretical models like Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY), Zener, bound magnetic polaron (BMP) were also developed to investigate the same, but to some extent, confusion remains about which interaction mechanism is responsible for observed intrinsic type of RTFM. The theoretical modeling is among utmost imperative analysis in the research progression. It helped to understand the conceptual and quantifiable knowledge of the origin of ferromagnetism in the dilute magnetic semiconductors. Furthermore, it may offer the essential path to cultivate an efficacious approach for the manufacturer of these materials. The present paper epitomizes various theoretical models viz RKKY model, Zener model, mean-field Zener model and BMP model that elucidate the RTFM in dilute magnetic semiconductors. The study reveals, among various BMP models, magnetic ordering is most reliant in the finding the RTFM, and quite successful to explicate ferromagnetic exchange coupling amid the TM local moments in dilute magnetic semiconductors.

List of References