Effect of Ultrasound Radiation on Biological Tissues: Physical Bases and Technological Principles

Authors I.M. Lukavenko , V.V. Andryushchenko , O.V. Yazykov   

Sumy State University, 2, Rimsky- Korsakov St., 40007 Sumy, Ukraine

Issue Volume 11, Year 2019, Number 3
Dates Received 09 March 2019; revised manuscript received 20 June 2019; published online 25 June 2019
Citation I.M. Lukavenko, V.V. Andryushchenko, O.V. Yazykov, J. Nano- Electron. Phys. 11 No 3, 03008 (2019)
DOI https://doi.org/10.21272/jnep.11(3).03008
PACS Number(s) 42.55.Wd, 42.62.Be
Keywords Ultrasonic radiation, Magnetostriction and piezostriction effects, Ultrasonic scalpel, Biological tissues, Electroacoustic transducer.

The paper presents the modern methods based on the effects of various types of radiation on biological tissues. Ultrasonic, as well as laser, radiation is widely used in medicine for therapeutic purposes, in the diagnosis and in surgical practice. The authors analyzed the physical foundations and technological principles of ultrasonic medical instruments, including ultrasonic scalpels. The concentration of an ultrasonic beam with an intensity of hundreds W/cm2 in a small area is achieved by focusing the vibrational energy. The use of ultrasonic waves in surgery is based on two principles: the application of the properties of intense ultrasonic waves to penetrate into the depths of living tissues without damaging them and the effect on the object of a special surgical instrument that emits ultrasonic oscillations at a frequency from 20 to 70 kHz. It has been shown that the «Harmonic» ultrasonic scalpel can produce three types of effects: cavitation, co-infection/coagulation and intersection. Cavitation is caused by the gas bubble formation at body temperature due to rapid changes in the volume of tissues and intracellular fluids under the vibration influence. Coagulation is due to the fact that under the action of pressure and ultrasound in tissues there is protein fragmentation, which causes adhesion of collagen molecules at a low temperature from 37 °C to 63 °C. Coagulation is the process of protein denaturation at temperatures up to 150 °C. For high-frequency vibration, there is a rapid over-stretching of tissues that are easily intersected by a surgical instrument. It has been established that at the operating frequency of the «Harmonic» ultrasonic scalpel of 55 kHz, the influence on soft tissues occurs at a constant velocity V = 0.85 mm/s.

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