Preparation and Characterization of Carbon-Silicon Hybrid Nanostructures

Authors V.V. Lisnyak1,2, G.K. Mussabek2,3, N.Zh. Zhylkybayeva2,3, S.Z. Baktygerey2,3, A.N. Zaderko4

1Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko University, 64, Volodymyrska St., 01601 Kyiv, Ukraine

2Institute of Information and Computational Technologies, 125, Pushkin St., 050000 Almaty, Kazakhstan

3Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 71, Al-Farabi Ave., 050040 Almaty, Kazakhstan

4Institute of High Technologies, Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko University, 2, Hlushkova Ave., 03187 Kyiv, Ukraine

Issue Volume 13, Year 2021, Number 5
Dates Received 14 April 2021; revised manuscript received 20 October 2021; published online 25 October 2021
Citation V.V. Lisnyak, G.K. Mussabek, et al., J. Nano- Electron. Phys. 13 No 5, 05035 (2021)
PACS Number(s) 68.35. − p, 68.90. + g
Keywords Nanostructures (8) , Silicon and Carbon, Hybrids.

In this paper, we describe the design features of carbon-silicon (Si@C) hybrid nanostructures. Initial silicon nanoparticles (Si NPs) were prepared by acid etching from powdered (80 % Al – 20 % Si) silumin alloy. For preparing Si@C hybrid nanostructures, the use of standard thermal and chemical methods was proposed. The recommended approach involves treatment of the oxidized surface of Si NPs with polyvinylpyrrolidone as a carbon-containing precursor compound. The resulting product should be subjected to further carbonization. To prevent significant sintering of the components, Si NPs treated with polyvinylpyrrolidone were placed in a fluidized bed furnace and calcined at 400 and 500 °C in an argon atmosphere for 4 h. According to the data of atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) imaging, we obtained the Si@C interface and the corresponding Si/C heterostructures. By using TEM and HAADF-STEM imaging, we found that 2D carbon nanostructures are formed on the structured nanosilicon surface as on the substrate. According to the visualization of the modified interface, carbon NPs are amorphous and semi-amorphous nanostructures. Carbon NPs, the Si@C interface, and the corresponding Si/C heterostructures of Si@C hybrids can be prospective as probes for the development of new sensor devices. Sensing responses of Si@C hybrid-based sensors to ammonia, methanol and ethanol vapors were measured at room temperature and compared. Notably, hybrid-based sensors are highly sensitive with a selectivity of up to 10 ppm of ammonia, contrasting to the response to 1,000 ppm of methanol and ethanol vapors. The proposed hybrids have great potential to be used in adsorption semiconductor gas sensors to determine analytes in vapors using nanocarbon bonded to silicon in hybrid nanostructures as a probe.

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