Biosensors: Design, Classification and Application

Authors N.M. Inshyna, I.V. Chorna, L.O. Primova, L.I. Hrebenyk, Y.V. Khyzhnia

Sumy State University, 2, Rymsky-Korsakov St., 40007 Sumy, Ukraine

Issue Volume 12, Year 2020, Number 3
Dates Received 01 May 2020; revised manuscript received 15 June 2020; published online 25 June 2020
Citation N.M. Inshyna, I.V. Chorna, L.O. Primova, et al., J. Nano- Electron. Phys. 12 No 3, 03033 (2020)
PACS Number(s), 82.47.Rs
Keywords Biosensor (5) , Nanomaterials (4) , Bioreceptor, Physico-chemical transducer.

The data of modern scientific research on the structure of biosensors, their classification and use in various fields of human practice are presented. Varieties of biosensors are characterized based on the type of bioreceptor and physical-chemical transducer in their structure. The peculiarities of the structure of biosensors on the basis of enzymes, cells, cellular organelles, tissues, nucleic acids, antibodies, and aptamers are reviewed. The principles of functioning of optical, acoustic, calorimetric, piezoelectric, and electrochemical biosensors are described. The data on the design of a new generation of biosensors are summarized. The effectiveness of various methods of bioreceptor immobilization is compared. Physical (physical adsorption, incorporation into the matrix, encapsulation) and chemical (covalent binding, cross-molecular interactions) methods of bioreceptor immobilization are described. Methods of improvement of electrochemical properties of biosensors by including carbon nanomaterials (nanotubes, graphene, graphene oxide) and metal nanoparticles in their composition are considered. Examples of the use of biosensors for assessing the quality of food and drinking water, monitoring technological processes in various industries, determining the level of environmental pollution with toxic compounds, monitoring of human health indicators, identifying micro-organisms and their toxins that can be used as biological weapons, etc. are provided. Further prospects for the development of biosensor technologies are discussed.

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